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Functional pitch recognition involves identifying the function or role of a single pitch in the context of an established tonic. Once a tonic has been established, each subsequent pitch may be classified without direct reference to accompanying pitches. For example, once the tonic G has been established, listeners may recognize that the pitch D plays the role of the dominant in the key of G. No reference to any other pitch is required to establish this fact.
Many musicians use functional pitch recognition in order to identify, understand, and appreciate the roles and meanings of pitches within a key. To this end, scale-degree numbers or Solmization
solfège (do, re, mi, etc.) can be quite helpful. Using such systems, pitches with identical functions (the key note or tonic, for example) are associated with identical labels (1 or do, for example).
Ear Training is the development of the active and passive capability to relate to music aurally. This includes the ability to recognize melodic and harmonic intervals, chords, chords progressions, rhythm, melody and harmony. This is a skill by which musicians learn to identify, solely by hearing, pitches, intervals, melody, chords, rhythms, and other basic elements of music. The application of this skill is analogous to taking dictation in written/spoken language. Ear training may be contrasted with sight-singing, which is analogous to reading aloud in language. Ear-training is typically a component of formal musical training.
Relative Pitch - The term relative pitch may denote:
1) the distance of a musical note from a set point of reference, e.g. "three octaves above middle C"
2) a musician's ability to identify the intervals between given tones, regardless of their relation to concert pitch (A = 440Hz)
3) the skill used by singers to correctly sing a melody, following musical notation, by pitching each note in the melody according to its distance from the previous note. Alternatively, the same skill which allows someone to hear a melody for the first time and name the notes relative to some known starting pitch.
Before talking about playing by ear, one needs to understand what is commonly called ear training. As the WikipediA definition for Ear Training mentioned, ear training has an active and passive roll.
PASSIVE EAR TRAINING is the ability to recognize and name intervals, chords, chord progressions, melodic sequences, rhythm, etc... An example of passive ear training would be if someone played the first two notes of the song "Here Comes the Bride" you can recognize them as an interval of a perfect fourth. You might not know the actual pitches, that would be perfect pitch, the ability to identify or re-create a given musical note without the benefit of an external reference.
Happy Birthday To You
Theme from Jaws (movie), Pink Panther
Do A Dear
Smoke on the Water
First two notes of a Blues scale
Michael Roow Your Boat Ashore
When the Saints Go Marching In
Kum By Ya
Have Yourself a Merry Little Christmas
Here Comes the Bride
The Look of Love
Auld Lang Syne ("Should Auld...")
The Simp - sons
Ma ri a, from West Side Story
Twinkle, Twinkle Litle Star
My Favorite Things
Theme from Star Wars
Hey There Georgie Girl
Theme From Love Story
Scott Joplin's The Entertainer (Main theme after the intro)
In My Life (guitar intro)
My Bonnie Lies Over The Ocean
the N B C theme
I Heard the Bells
Take the A Train
Theme from Fantasy Island
Theme from Star Trek
Somewhere (from West Side Story)
Hi Ho Hi Ho
Some where Over the Rainbow (then descends a minor second to the major seventh of the scale
Let It Snow
The Christmas Song
* Fixed do solfège. In the fixed do system, accidentals do not affect the syllables used. For example, C, C♯, and C♭, as well as C double sharp and C double flat are all sung with the syllable "do", For more information, history and visit the Wikipedia page for Solfège
Joy to the World
Jingle Bell Rock
Stella by Starlight
Three Blind Mice
Mary Had a Little Lamb
This Old Man
Misty, Start Spangled Banner
Beethoven's 5th (G G G Eb)
Frere Jacques ("Ding Dang Dong...")
When Johnny Comes Marching Home
I've Been Working on the Railroad
The Simp - sons
Ma ri a, from West Side Story
Have You Meet Miss Jones
Seven Steps to Heaven
Flintstones Theme (Flint stones meet the ...
I love you (Cole Porter)
Hi Ho Hi Ho
Some where Over the Rainbow
Crazy (2nd line "I'm crazy..."
Willow Weep For Me
My Girl guitar lick, I Saw Mommy Kissing Santa Claus
Joy to the World
Jingle, Jingle, Jingle ( the first four notes a major seventh chord, the 1 3 5 7 of the major scale of key of the song. )
ACTIVE EAR TRAINING is the ability to reproduce intervals, chords, chord progressions, melodic sequences, rhythm, etc... An example of active ear training would be to play the first two notes of the song "Here Comes the Bride" anywhere on your instrument or sing that interval (in tune).
The hands are the weakest link in the Ear to Hands to Mind combination that is used to play music (by ear) and the hands need to be trained to follow the ear. It is the hands training that takes the longest.
The ear can remember stuff after ONE time hearing it. The Mind two or three and the hands to develop the muscle memory take about a few hundred times. How else can we recognize melodies after hear it once?
When practicing you should be doing stuff to train the hands to follow the ear. That is the sequence for developing this connection:
The Mind tells the Hands what to play and the Ear listens. DON'T practice by ear. Have a plan and organization of the material you would like to cover.
Practicing your scales in intervals of 2nds, 3rds, 4ths, 5ths, 6ths, 7ths, etc... Some more common than other for melodies. Practice both ascending and descending. I would go with 2nds, 3rds, and 6ths first.
The Ear tells the Hands what play and you can involve the Mind if needed or wanted after the fact.
The hands will not do anything they have not done before.
So to be able to play by ear you either:
1) Hunt and Peck enough to train your fingers to follow the ear – or –
2) Have a plan to train the ear and hands to work together, thus making the hands to the ear connection quicker. Creating a plan is where a teacher can really help. And, if you've had bad experiences with teachers don't give up on them just try another teacher, good teachers are out there. Typically jazz musicians will be the best teachers in the playing by ear department. Remember playing by ear does not mean practicing by ear. Practicing and learning are different then performing.
Here is an example of learning a specific interval. The first two notes of "Here Comes the Bride" are a perfect fourth. Try putting any finger on any note of the ukulele and then play the second, "Here Comes..." correctly the first time. If you can't the fingers haven't been trained enough to "Play by Ear", to obey the hands for the particular sound of that interval. This is then where the mind comes in and intellectually knows where the interval of a perfect fourth is and trains the hands to follow the ear.
Same goes for chords, chord progressions, melodies, rhythms. The process starts with the mind telling hands what to do and the ear taking it all in.
Learning music by ear is done by repeatedly listening to other musicians and then attempting to recreate what one hears. This is how people learn music in any musical tradition in which there is no complete system of musical notation. Many people in cultures which have notation still learn by ear and ear training, often through a musicianship course at a music conservatory or college, is common practice among those who use notation extensively.
I've emphasize the attempting in the first sentence above. With a little knowledge of the principles of music the attempting can simply be recreating.
I've personally had experience with students, players and even myself at times trying to learn by ear. It's always seems to be a hunt and peck method fraught with errors.
“Do, or do not. There is no 'try.”
Jedi Master Yoda, from Star Wars I
KARAJAN is an easy to use music and ear training application for the iPhone and iPod Touch.
Do Re Mi Ear Training is a Solfège practice partner on your iPhone and iPod Touch! This app helps you develop pitch recognition, memory, and transcription ability by playing musical phrases for you to repeat back.
Check out Jim D'Ville's web site.
Here a few lessons that might be of interest to the topic and principles covered in this lesson.Query failed: Unknown column 'l.created' in 'field list'